High Tides – Low tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun. (By the gravitational pull of the moon will affect the tide – the tide is greater than the gravitational pull of the sun.
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Because the moon is closer to the earth than the sun) to water in seas and oceans Including water in various rivers and canals near the mouth of the river The gravitational pull causes the water level in the oceans and seas to rise or fall. If any area has a difference in the level of high and low tide more than 4 meters, it is considered an area that has the potential to bring energy from the high tide to use in electricity generation. The rise and fall of sea water means changing the potential energy. of water The height of the tides depends on their position on the earth. Scientists try to use the energy generated by the tides to generate electricity.
Tides are a natural phenomenon. That happens every day, 1 time per day. In some areas, the water level varies by up to 10 meters. In some areas, the water level rises and falls. We can use energy from the rising and falling tide to generate electricity. By making a water gate at the mouth of the bay or the mouth of the lake When the water on the ground opens the door to let the water flow deep into the bay or lake. When the tide is high, the gate is closed. When the tide is low until the water in the bay or lake is about 4-5 meters higher than the water outside the gate, it opens for water to flow out through the pipe while allowing the water to spin the turbine. of the generator will get electricity out, rising water – low water will occur every day So the tidal power rises. low tide can therefore be classified as “Renewable energy” suitable area to bring tidal energy. is the mouth of the bay or the mouth of the river
Working principle of tidal power plant
Since the tidal energy is used to generate electricity, water will be stored in the bay or a very large water source. By building a watertight door at the mouth of the bay, when the tide is high, open the watertight door to allow water to enter the bay. When the tide was at its highest, the water gate was closed. All water is stored in the bay. When the tide is low enough that there is a large difference between the water level in the bay and the water outside, a pipe is opened to allow water to drain from the kite or reservoir. The water that flows out will act to rotate the turbine and A generator just like a conventional hydroelectric plant.
Therefore, power plants that go up and down the tide therefore have not much cost. Because there is no need to design or build new equipment at all.
The first country to bring hydropower – the water is used to generate electricity.
The first country to bring tidal energy to use in electricity generation is France. In 1967, France built a tidal power plant, a backup power plant. It is located in the Bay of Brittany. It has a capacity of 240 megawatts.
The country that tried to bring tidal energy to use in generating electricity is South Korea. In 2011, South Korea built a tidal power plant called Sihwa Power Plant on Sihwa Lake with 254 megawatts. Watts to build such a power plant. A 12.7 km long road will have to be built to partially block the lake. And South Korea has a project to build 2 more tidal power plants at Ganghwa Island and Incheon Island.
In addition, Scotland The largest tidal power plant in Scotland is being built. It will be able to generate electricity to supply electricity to 175,000 households, which is expected to be completed soon.
Tidal power plant
In our world there are many sources of energy. Many major energy sources have not been utilized much. Because we still have oil and natural gas to use. But when oil and natural gas run out From Earth, other energy sources will surely be used. The energy source that we will talk about now is the energy of the rising tide of sea water. The rising and falling tide is the flow of water. Due to the enormous mass of seawater, the ups and downs of sea water will also have enormous amounts of kinetic energy. If we can extract this energy to convert into electrical energy. will get a lot of electric power
At present, the tide-tidal power plant has actually occurred in France. France completed the construction of this type of power plant in 1966. This power plant relies on tide-tide energy. Ocean water will flow to the reservoir or lake. When ocean water flows into a reservoir or lake already. will close the door to block the water When the ocean water recedes, it opens a door to drain the reservoir or lake into the ocean while draining water into the ocean. It allows the water to flow through the turbine to turn the generator.
Environmental impacts from rising and falling tide energy
Power plants in high tide – low tide requires the construction of a dam to block the mouth of a river or estuary to make a reservoir, affecting the ecology system. and impacts on the environment in various ways as follows:
1) causing a flood Areas near reservoirs that are in lowlands can cause flooding during high tide.
2) The construction of dams around the reservoir affects aquatic animals and navigation.
3) Impact on scenery The construction of a river mouth dam affects the scenery. and tourism
Potential and development of tidal energy in Thailand
Due to the difference in the level of tide and tide suitable for bringing energy from the tide. Must not be less than 4 meters, but the water level – the water level in Thailand, according to the Hydrographic Department, found that There is only one area where there is a difference of 4 meters between high and low tide levels, namely Pak Nam Ranong, Ranong Province, with the highest words about 4 meters and the average year-round average of about 2 meters only. Therefore, there is no research on tidal energy in Thailand.